This is a short reference, initial listing is from the Wikipedia page on Anti-competitive prices.
Where a company sells a product in a competitive market at a loss. Though the company loses money for each sale, the company hopes to force other competitors out of the market, after which the company would be free to raise prices for a greater profit.
Ex: I believe this is how Uber and Lyft set their pricing, hoping to drive out traditional taxi services from the market. Once they do this, they’ll either be the only game in town (because nobody can ever start a brand new taxi service ever again, right?), or they’ll have a permanently low cost structure with driverless cars (spoiler: not happening).
Where a retailer or wholesaler is obliged by contract to only purchase from the contracted supplier.
Where companies collude to set prices, effectively dismantling the free market.
Refusal to Deal
Two companies agree not to use a certain vendor
An agreement by two companies to stay out of each other’s way and reduce competition in the agreed-upon territories.
A limit price is a price, or pricing strategy, where products are sold by a supplier at a price low enough to make it unprofitable for other players to enter the market.
Where products that are not naturally related must be purchased together.
Resale Price Maintenance
Where resellers are not allowed to set prices independently.
The practice of creating the illusion of competition in an oligopolistic market, by creating subsidiaries and sub-brands.
- Loblaw Companies
- Great Canadian Superstore
- Independent CityMarket
- No Frills
- Rogers, Fido, Chatr
- Telus, Koodo, Public Mobile
- Bell, Virgin Mobile, Lucky Mobile
- Shaw, Freedom Mobile
International Comparison: Canada has the highest or second highest PPP-adjusted prices in all five Level baskets.From the Executive Summary, Mobile Wireless section
Other people’s writing on the topic
Ishmael N. Daro – Canada has an oligopoly problem. This article makes a strong point that having a government-backed player in an oligopolistic market lowers prices for customers. It was interesting to consider that oligoplies exist in media, and that the “public option” CBC is under constant attack. I don’t find ishmael’s points about the big 5 banks convincing – how is that an oligopoly? How are they making life worse for Canadians?