This is a short reference, initial listing is from the Wikipedia page on Anti-competitive prices.


Where a company sells a product in a competitive market at a loss. Though the company loses money for each sale, the company hopes to force other competitors out of the market, after which the company would be free to raise prices for a greater profit.

Ex: I believe this is how Uber and Lyft set their pricing, hoping to drive out traditional taxi services from the market. Once they do this, they’ll either be the only game in town (because nobody can ever start a brand new taxi service ever again, right?), or they’ll have a permanently low cost structure with driverless cars (spoiler: not happening).

Exclusive Dealing

Where a retailer or wholesaler is obliged by contract to only purchase from the contracted supplier.

Price Fixing

Where companies collude to set prices, effectively dismantling the free market.

Refusal to Deal

Two companies agree not to use a certain vendor

Dividing Territories

An agreement by two companies to stay out of each other’s way and reduce competition in the agreed-upon territories.

Limit Pricing

A limit price is a price, or pricing strategy, where products are sold by a supplier at a price low enough to make it unprofitable for other players to enter the market.


Where products that are not naturally related must be purchased together.

Resale Price Maintenance

Where resellers are not allowed to set prices independently.

Canadian Whack-A-Mole

The practice of creating the illusion of competition in an oligopolistic market, by creating subsidiaries and sub-brands.


Mobile Telecom

  • Rogers, Fido, Chatr
  • Telus, Koodo, Public Mobile
  • Bell, Virgin Mobile, Lucky Mobile
  • Shaw, Freedom Mobile

Jan, 2019 – Tefficient report shows Canada has world’s highest carrier revenue per SIM

Oct. 2019 – Tefficient removes Canada from mobile price ranking over industry pressure and CRTC’s delays in releasing information.

The 2019 Price Comparison Study of Telecommunications Services in Canada and with Foreign Jurisdictions, prepared by Wall Communications Inc.

International Comparison: Canada has the highest or second highest PPP-adjusted prices in all five Level baskets.

From the Executive Summary, Mobile Wireless section

Jul. 2019 – Rewheel research shows Canada carriers give you the fewest GB of data for 30 Euros, in the world.

2019 – Telus commissioned NERA study to rebut Rewheel report

Other people’s writing on the topic

Ishmael N. Daro – Canada has an oligopoly problem. This article makes a strong point that having a government-backed player in an oligopolistic market lowers prices for customers. It was interesting to consider that oligoplies exist in media, and that the “public option” CBC is under constant attack. I don’t find ishmael’s points about the big 5 banks convincing – how is that an oligopoly? How are they making life worse for Canadians?